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Includes tenure systems including recognizing the ways of accessing urban land, formal and informal), market (ownership, tenancy, right to use), state allocation, “good faith” occupation, customary rights systems, formalization of informal settlements and slums, temporary occupation licenses, subsidiary property rights, lease and lease transfer, easements and servitudes, adverse possession, land administration and access to information, land cadastre, compulsory acquisition (compensations, public purpose, time, dispute resolutions).
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Distribution of functions/responsibilities among different levels of government (i.e., state, regions, provinces, districts, cities, sub-cities entities), judicial control of administrative acts, alternative dispute resolutions (including arbitration), protections against illegitimate acts of the public administration (ombudsman), access to information (administrative acts), public participation within the adoption of state regulations, minimum representation of women, youth or other interest groups in local institutions or consultative bodies, compensation for legitimate administrative actions.
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by CNJUR
3 years 4 months ago
Planning laws and different planning instruments, planning standards for minimum basic infrastructure, regulations governing the use of public space, land subdivision law, plotting regulations, land readjustment law, development controls, effects of planning decisions on land value (value capture/compensation), mechanisms to prevent land speculation, slum/settlement neighborhood rehabilitation, public participation in plans, variants, amendments, exemptions etc.
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Housing acts, building/construction permits, building controls, building use regulations, condominium law, housing cooperatives law, social/public housing, evictions, building codes, housing subsidies (cost, rent, rehabilitation), incentives for energy efficiency in buildings, access to housing for disadvantaged groups and minorities, mortgages to facilitate access to credit for housing.
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National infrastructure law, planning for infrastructure, public works, private-public partnerships, concessions (to operate utilities, public land/buildings), utilities (water, sanitation, electricity, waste, sewage) and tariff systems, including subsidies, betterment levy or other value capture mechanisms to finance infrastructure, municipal taxation, finance and economic development, environment, natural and cultural resources, urban resilience and post disaster recovery.
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Intra-governmental tax allocation (transfer from central government/sharing of local revenues), municipal fiscal powers, property tax, property transfer tax, land development fees, rental income tax, capital gains tax, urban land rent tax, betterment levy, other local taxes: advertisements, market fees, hawkers taxation, parking fees, etc, local economic development laws (stimulus packages), Laws to formalize the informal economy, municipal borrowing (from government sources, from private capital market (incl. international markets).
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Natural resources (incl. conservation of nature flora/fauna), Air quality, noise, water, drinking water, freshwater and sea regulations, conservation of the historical heritage, environmental impact assessment/environmental authorizations (urban plans, buildings, economic activities).
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International frameworks, mitigation/resilience acts (development control, planning, construction standards, public health, sewerage and drainage, infectious diseases, road traffic act, disaster monitoring and forecasting, disaster response planning (management” of volunteers), disaster risk reduction (DRR), information and communication with the population, institutional coordination and disaster management, post-disaster response/relief (fire department guidelines, medical assistance, municipal population care, transitional settlement), reconstruction plans.
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